To understand the function of your vein anatomy, it’s important to understand how your cardiovascular system works. Inside your body, you have a massive network of blood vessels. They all begin with the pulmonary vein. The pulmonary vein handles moving oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

Inside of the heart, oxygen-rich blood pumps throughout your body. Blood flows to your arms, legs, organs, tissues and cells. Once the oxygen arrives, the blood becomes deoxygenized (without oxygen) and flows back toward the heart. Once there, the process starts over again.

Here is a breakdown of your vein anatomy:

Veins and arteries have three layers

The adventitia

The outer layer of the vein that’s made up of loose connective tissue.

The media

The middle layer that’s made up of layers of smooth muscle and elastic fibers.

The intima

The inner lining of the vein, which attaches to the underlying connective tissue.

Vessels that bring blood back to the heart

The largest veins in your body are the “great vessels.” These vessels are responsible for circulating blood to and from your heart:

The inferior and superior vena cava

Carries deoxygenated blood from the body. It flows to the right side of the heart.

The pulmonary vein 

Transfers oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left side of the heart. From there, the oxygen-rich blood travels throughout the rest of the body.

Arteries that carry blood away from the heart

These are the two most important arteries in the body:

The aorta

the main artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the left side of the heart to the rest of the body.

The pulmonary artery

carries oxygen-poor blood away from the heart, back toward the lungs.

Vein Anatomy Summary

Regardless of the way it work, It’s important to take good care of your venous and cardiovascular systems. It’s the only way to ensure your body is getting the oxygen and nutrients it needs to function . When the vessels inside you veins become damaged or inoperable, blood can get stuck and begin pooling. This leads to varicose veins if left untreated.

You can take care of your veins by maintaining a healthy diet, exercising, and avoiding tobacco products. You can also limit sodium, sugar and saturated fat in your diet.

Your vein health is important for your well-being. Learn more about the services we offer by calling our North Center location. You can reach us at 773-231-9884. Reach our Downtown Chicago location at 312-234-0750

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Chicago, IL 60618


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Chicago Vein Institute is a practice solely dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of vein diseases. The experts at CVI perform the latest and most effective treatments for painful varicose veins, spider veins, and other vein-related disorders. CVI offers minimally invasive treatment options, including Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA), Ambulatory Phlebectomy, Ultrasound-Guided Sclerotherapy, Surface Sclerotherapy, Elastic Compression Stockings and wound care for venous ulcers, performing more than 11,000 vein-related procedures annually. Same-Day appointments and multi-lingual team members standing by to assist.